Journal of the New Zealand Medical Association, 02-June-2006, Vol 119 No 1235
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First national audit of the outcomes of care in young people with diabetes in New Zealand: high prevalence of nephropathy in Māori and Pacific Islanders
Adrian Scott, Robyn Toomath, David Bouchier, Raymond Bruce, Nic Crook, David Carroll, Rick Cutfield, Paul Dixon, John Doran, Peter Dunn, Cheri Hotu, Maunt Khant, Maureen Lonsdale, Helen Lunt, Esko Wiltshire, Denise Wu
Diabetes is an important cause of morbidity and mortality amongst young people. Despite improvements in technology, maintenance of good glycaemic control is hard to achieve.
In July 2003, 12 paediatric and adult hospital-based diabetes services across New Zealand were invited to take part in an audit of the process and outcomes of care. By March 2004, 9 centres had submitted data on 1282 (1117 with Type 1 diabetes, 105 with Type 2) children and young people born after 1 January 1978.
There were significant centre differences in terms of glycaemic control, rates of microvascular complications and complication screening. The group mean HbA1c was 9.10.3%. Amongst 789 people aged 16–25 years, the prevalence of retinopathy was 12.8% (range 0–26%); nephropathy was 17.1% (range 7–28 %). Of those with a duration of diabetes >10 years, 25% had retinopathy and 27% nephropathy. Over the age of 12, microalbuminuria was more common amongst Māori and Pacific Islanders (43.8%) compared to Europeans (17%) or Others (17.8%). This was independent of the type of diabetes.
This is the largest study of young people with diabetes undertaken in New Zealand. The results confirm the difficulty of achieving good glycaemic control in children and young adults. Microvascular complications were common, particularly in those of long duration, and cardiovascular risk factors were present in many young adults. The difference in average HbA1c% between centres was highly significant and independent of other factors. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in young people was associated with early onset nephropathy and dyslipidaemia (almost from diagnosis), thus suggesting the need for earlier diagnosis.
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