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A link between air pollution and heart failureAir pollution is a well-recognised risk factor for cardiovascular health, and it has been shown to be an important trigger of acute myocardial infarction. This systematic study reviews the relationship of air pollution to acute heart failure, including hospitalisation and heart failure mortality.Thirty-five studies were included in the review and an association between acute heart failure and daily increases in gaseous (carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone) and particulate air pollutants was sought. All of these pollutants, except ozone, were found to be clearly associated with heart failure hospitalisation and mortality.An editorial commentator applauds the study and notes that the European Respiratory Society observes that "citizens are entitled to clean air, just like clean water and safe food."Lancet 2013;382:1008–10 & 1039–48. Diverse sources of C. difficile infectionIt has been thought that Clostridium difficile infection is transmitted predominantly within health care settings. Prevention efforts have focused on scrupulous hygiene and isolation of known cases. Judicious use of antimicrobials is also recommended. Other sources are possible—asymptomatic colonised patients, water, food and animals.This report evaluates the sources of C. difficile in one region, Oxfordshire, UK, over a 3-year period. 1223 C. difficile isolates were evaluated on whole-genome sequencing and 45% of them were genetically distinct from all previous isolates. The researchers observe that most of these organisms "were acquired from asymptomatic persons or some other environmental reservoir."N Engl J Med 2013;369:1195–205. Combined oral contraceptives and the risk of venous thrombosisMany women use combined oral contraceptives, despite such use being associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis. This meta-analysis reviews the risk of venous thrombosis in 10 frequently prescribed oral contraceptives. All combinations included ethinylestradiol (EE) in a dose ranging from 20–50 mg together with levonorgestrel or gestodene.All were found to increase the risk of venous thrombosis twofold with the highest risk observed for 50 µg EE with levonorgestrel; the lowest risk was observed for 20 µg or 30 µg EE with levonorgestrel and for 20 µg EE with gestodene.A clear message.BMJ 2013;347:f5298.

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A link between air pollution and heart failureAir pollution is a well-recognised risk factor for cardiovascular health, and it has been shown to be an important trigger of acute myocardial infarction. This systematic study reviews the relationship of air pollution to acute heart failure, including hospitalisation and heart failure mortality.Thirty-five studies were included in the review and an association between acute heart failure and daily increases in gaseous (carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone) and particulate air pollutants was sought. All of these pollutants, except ozone, were found to be clearly associated with heart failure hospitalisation and mortality.An editorial commentator applauds the study and notes that the European Respiratory Society observes that "citizens are entitled to clean air, just like clean water and safe food."Lancet 2013;382:1008–10 & 1039–48. Diverse sources of C. difficile infectionIt has been thought that Clostridium difficile infection is transmitted predominantly within health care settings. Prevention efforts have focused on scrupulous hygiene and isolation of known cases. Judicious use of antimicrobials is also recommended. Other sources are possible—asymptomatic colonised patients, water, food and animals.This report evaluates the sources of C. difficile in one region, Oxfordshire, UK, over a 3-year period. 1223 C. difficile isolates were evaluated on whole-genome sequencing and 45% of them were genetically distinct from all previous isolates. The researchers observe that most of these organisms "were acquired from asymptomatic persons or some other environmental reservoir."N Engl J Med 2013;369:1195–205. Combined oral contraceptives and the risk of venous thrombosisMany women use combined oral contraceptives, despite such use being associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis. This meta-analysis reviews the risk of venous thrombosis in 10 frequently prescribed oral contraceptives. All combinations included ethinylestradiol (EE) in a dose ranging from 20–50 mg together with levonorgestrel or gestodene.All were found to increase the risk of venous thrombosis twofold with the highest risk observed for 50 µg EE with levonorgestrel; the lowest risk was observed for 20 µg or 30 µg EE with levonorgestrel and for 20 µg EE with gestodene.A clear message.BMJ 2013;347:f5298.

Summary

Abstract

Aim

Method

Results

Conclusion

Author Information

Acknowledgements

Correspondence

Correspondence Email

Competing Interests

For the PDF of this article,
contact nzmj@nzma.org.nz

View Article PDF

A link between air pollution and heart failureAir pollution is a well-recognised risk factor for cardiovascular health, and it has been shown to be an important trigger of acute myocardial infarction. This systematic study reviews the relationship of air pollution to acute heart failure, including hospitalisation and heart failure mortality.Thirty-five studies were included in the review and an association between acute heart failure and daily increases in gaseous (carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone) and particulate air pollutants was sought. All of these pollutants, except ozone, were found to be clearly associated with heart failure hospitalisation and mortality.An editorial commentator applauds the study and notes that the European Respiratory Society observes that "citizens are entitled to clean air, just like clean water and safe food."Lancet 2013;382:1008–10 & 1039–48. Diverse sources of C. difficile infectionIt has been thought that Clostridium difficile infection is transmitted predominantly within health care settings. Prevention efforts have focused on scrupulous hygiene and isolation of known cases. Judicious use of antimicrobials is also recommended. Other sources are possible—asymptomatic colonised patients, water, food and animals.This report evaluates the sources of C. difficile in one region, Oxfordshire, UK, over a 3-year period. 1223 C. difficile isolates were evaluated on whole-genome sequencing and 45% of them were genetically distinct from all previous isolates. The researchers observe that most of these organisms "were acquired from asymptomatic persons or some other environmental reservoir."N Engl J Med 2013;369:1195–205. Combined oral contraceptives and the risk of venous thrombosisMany women use combined oral contraceptives, despite such use being associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis. This meta-analysis reviews the risk of venous thrombosis in 10 frequently prescribed oral contraceptives. All combinations included ethinylestradiol (EE) in a dose ranging from 20–50 mg together with levonorgestrel or gestodene.All were found to increase the risk of venous thrombosis twofold with the highest risk observed for 50 µg EE with levonorgestrel; the lowest risk was observed for 20 µg or 30 µg EE with levonorgestrel and for 20 µg EE with gestodene.A clear message.BMJ 2013;347:f5298.

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Abstract

Aim

Method

Results

Conclusion

Author Information

Acknowledgements

Correspondence

Correspondence Email

Competing Interests

Contact diana@nzma.org.nz
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