View Article PDF

Mother should I build the wall?

Mother should I run for president?

Mother should I trust the government?1

Recently elected president of the US, Donald Trump, campaigned on a platform promising radical change within the first 100 days of his presidency. Approximately two weeks into this period it may be instructive to review changes to date and consider their implications for the future, with a particular focus on international health.

Examining domestic health issues within the US first, the new regime’s attacks on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (aka ‘Obamacare’, or the ‘ACA’), which extended care to tens of millions of uninsured Americans, are well known. Promises to scrap Obamacare were a central tenet of the Republican agenda since its controversial introduction, as well as being an important element of Trump’s campaign.2 The new Presidential hiring freeze on federal jobs is already having an impact on hiring, adversely impacting agencies such as the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC).3 This type of restriction will in time no doubt have implications for such agencies to effectively commit to international public health operations such as the recent Ebola outbreak in West Africa.4

However, this potential distal impact is minimal compared to recent developments in the US, which seem certain to indicate a radical change in perspectives and priorities. The most important of these cultural changes is undoubtedly crystallised in the recent ‘Muslim Ban’ instigated in the US.5 This executive order, which was signed on January 27th, imposed an immediate ban for 90 days on travelers from Syria, Iran, Sudan, Libya, Somalia, Yemen and Iraq even if they held a valid residence visa, as well as suspending the entire US refugee admissions system for 120 days.6

This executive order, which is just one of many, clearly and definitively demonstrates the insecure and defensive xenophobic attitudes of Trump and the new regime. This order was hastily constructed and implemented, and quickly resulted in the firing of the US Attorney General, who questioned its legality,7 as well as leaving customs officials unsure as to the status of dual nationals and those with permanent residence cards.6 The new President campaigned on an extraordinary combination of uncloaked racism and insular protectionism, which has been demonstrated most strongly in his call, which became a trademark chant at his rallies, to ‘build the wall’ between the US and Mexico.8

We can therefore anticipate a continuation into the future of US policy knee-jerk reactions that are steeped in both racism and demonstrate a developing insular focus. The involvement of the US in international Public Health efforts, such as that demonstrated in response to the Ebola outbreak in West Africa, can no longer be taken for granted.9–10 The current rule of Government by executive order heavily influenced by nationalist and populist politics also has significant implications for international organisations. For example, despite the important role of the United Nations (UN) in responding to the recent Ebola outbreak,11 the UN has already been targeted for criticism by both Trump12 and his recently appointed UN envoy.13

Trump’s impact on global public health can already also be seen across a range of areas, including the removal of funding from non-governmental organisations (NGOs) that provide information on abortion.14 Other impacts include a growing global insecurity,15 the erosion of basic human rights,16 and in examining the longer term, an increasing emphasis on fossil fuels.17

On a practical note, it must also be acknowledged that the focus of the US and many of its citizens, including those that might routinely support (financially or otherwise) international efforts in the field of health promotion, may be firmly focused internally over the next four or eight years. Many US citizens may simply have little time for international issues given their immediate focus on significant internal domestic changes. The Presidential election result came after both a bitter and divisive campaign,18 followed by a contested election result.19–20

To date the Trump presidency has been marked by controversy and clear demonstrations of populist engagement with racist sentiment. From examples in policies and commentaries so far we can expect a continuing decline in US support for international organisations such as the UN, as well as a growing isolationism. Knee-jerk policies using executive orders, with or without the support of Congress, will undoubtedly continue. US national and international health policies will increasingly be driven by right-wing capitalist and Christian principles. We can anticipate short-term and ongoing global inter-state instability, as well as longer-term implications for global warming based on a renewed emphasis on fossil fuels.

Summary

Abstract

Aim

Method

Results

Conclusion

Author Information

Frank Houghton, Chair, Public Health & Administration, Eastern Washington University, US.

Acknowledgements

Correspondence

Dr Frank Houghton, Chair, Public Health & Administration, Eastern Washington University, 668 N. Riverpoint Blvd, Spokane, Washington State, US.

Correspondence Email

fhoughton@ewu.edu

Competing Interests

Nil.

  1. From the song Mother written by Roger Waters on the Pink Floyd album The Wall released in 1979.
  2. Humer C. (2016) Trump promised to repeal Obamacare. Now what? Reuters. Accessed on February 1st 2014 at http://www.google.com/amp/mobile.reuters.com/article/amp/idUSKBN135171?client=safari
  3. Eilperin J (2017) Trump freezes hiring of many federal workers. The Washington Post. Accessed on 1st February 2017 at http://www.google.com/amp/s/www.washingtonpost.com/amphtml/powerpost/trump-freezes-hiring-of-federal-workers/2017/01/23/f14d8180-e190-11e6-ba11-63c4b4fb5a63_story.html?client=safari
  4. Frieden TR, Damen IK. Ebola in West Africa—CDC’s Role in Epidemic Detection, Control, and Prevention. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015, 22(11). Accessed on 1st February 2017 at http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/21/11/15-0949_article
  5. Rothwell J, Krol C. Everything you need to know about Donald Trump’s ‘Muslim ban’. The Telegraph. Accessed on 1st February 2017 at http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/01/29/everything-need-know-donald-trumps-muslim-ban/
  6. Yuhas A, Sidahmed M. Is this a Muslim ban? Trump’s executive order explained. The Guardian. Accessed on 1st February 2017 at http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2017/jan/28/trump-immigration-ban-syria-muslims-reaction-lawsuits
  7. Shear MD, Landler M, Apuzzo M, Lichtblau E. Trump Fires Acting Attorney General Who Defied Him. New York Times. Accessed on 1st February 2017 at http://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/30/us/politics/trump-immigration-ban-memo.html?_r=0
  8. Glenza J. US is paying for border wall because Mexico will pay ‘later’, Trump says. The Guardian. Accessed on 1st February 2017 at http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2017/jan/06/donald-trump-mexico-border-wall-congress-america-pay
  9. U.S. Department of Defense. DOD Helps Fight Ebola in Liberia and West Africa. Accessed on 3rd February 2017 at http://archive.defense.gov/home/features/2014/1014_ebola/
  10. The White House Office of the Press Secretary. Fact Sheet: U.S. Response to the Ebola Epidemic in West Africa. Accessed on 3rd February 2017 at http://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/2014/09/16/fact-sheet-us-response-ebola-epidemic-west-africa
  11. United Nations. Global Ebola Response. Accessed on 3rd February 2017 at http://ebolaresponse.un.org
  12. Wagner J. Trump re-ups criticism of United Nations, saying it’s causing problems, not solving them. The Washington Post. December 28th 2016. Accessed on 3rd February at http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/post-politics/wp/2016/12/28/trump-re-ups-criticism-of-united-nations-saying-its-causing-problems-not-solving-them/?utm_term=.05037331567b
  13. Nichols M. New U.S. U.N. envoy warns allies: back us or we’ll take names. Reuters. Friday 27th January 2017. Accessed on 3rd February 2017 at http://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-un-idUSKBN15B1NG
  14. Redden M. ‘Global gag rule’ reinstated by Trump, curbing NGO abortion services abroad. The Guardian, 23rd January 2017. Accessed on http://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/jan/23/trump-abortion-gag-rule-international-ngo-funding
  15. McCurry J. North Korea faces ‘overwhelming’ US response if it uses nuclear arms – Mattis. The Guardian. Friday February 3rd 2017. Accessed on February 3rd at http://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/feb/03/n-korea-faces-overwhelming-us-response-if-it-uses-nuclear-arms-mattis
  16. Johnson J. Trump says ‘torture works,’ backs waterboarding and ‘much worse’. The Washington Post. February 17th 2016. Accessed on Friday 3rd February 2017 at http://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/trump-says-torture-works-backs-waterboarding-and-much-worse/2016/02/17/4c9277be-d59c-11e5-b195-2e29a4e13425_story.html?tid=a_inl&utm_term=.2f848e066e24
  17. Baker P, Davenport C. Trump Revives Keystone Pipeline Rejected by Obama. The New York Times. January 24th 2017. Accessed on 3rd February 2017 at http://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/24/us/politics/keystone-dakota-pipeline-trump.html?_r=0
  18. Alexander H, Sherlock R. US election 2016: Welcome to America’s unpopularity contest. The Telegraph. 17th Septemer 2016. Accessed on 3rd February 2017 at http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/09/17/us-election-2016-welcome-to-americas-unpopularity-contest/
  19. Bump P. Hillary Clinton wins the popular vote but loses the election, for the second time. The Washington Post. Accessed on 3rd February 2017 at http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2016/11/09/for-the-second-time-hillary-clinton-wins-more-votes-but-loses-an-election/?utm_term=.5d561f1aea60
  20. The Independent. US election recount: Jill Stein files for vote audit in swing state of Michigan. Wednesday 30th November 2016. Accessed on 3rd February 2017 at http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2016/11/09/for-the-second-time-hillary-clinton-wins-more-votes-but-loses-an-election/?utm_term=.5d561f1aea60

For the PDF of this article,
contact nzmj@nzma.org.nz

View Article PDF

Mother should I build the wall?

Mother should I run for president?

Mother should I trust the government?1

Recently elected president of the US, Donald Trump, campaigned on a platform promising radical change within the first 100 days of his presidency. Approximately two weeks into this period it may be instructive to review changes to date and consider their implications for the future, with a particular focus on international health.

Examining domestic health issues within the US first, the new regime’s attacks on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (aka ‘Obamacare’, or the ‘ACA’), which extended care to tens of millions of uninsured Americans, are well known. Promises to scrap Obamacare were a central tenet of the Republican agenda since its controversial introduction, as well as being an important element of Trump’s campaign.2 The new Presidential hiring freeze on federal jobs is already having an impact on hiring, adversely impacting agencies such as the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC).3 This type of restriction will in time no doubt have implications for such agencies to effectively commit to international public health operations such as the recent Ebola outbreak in West Africa.4

However, this potential distal impact is minimal compared to recent developments in the US, which seem certain to indicate a radical change in perspectives and priorities. The most important of these cultural changes is undoubtedly crystallised in the recent ‘Muslim Ban’ instigated in the US.5 This executive order, which was signed on January 27th, imposed an immediate ban for 90 days on travelers from Syria, Iran, Sudan, Libya, Somalia, Yemen and Iraq even if they held a valid residence visa, as well as suspending the entire US refugee admissions system for 120 days.6

This executive order, which is just one of many, clearly and definitively demonstrates the insecure and defensive xenophobic attitudes of Trump and the new regime. This order was hastily constructed and implemented, and quickly resulted in the firing of the US Attorney General, who questioned its legality,7 as well as leaving customs officials unsure as to the status of dual nationals and those with permanent residence cards.6 The new President campaigned on an extraordinary combination of uncloaked racism and insular protectionism, which has been demonstrated most strongly in his call, which became a trademark chant at his rallies, to ‘build the wall’ between the US and Mexico.8

We can therefore anticipate a continuation into the future of US policy knee-jerk reactions that are steeped in both racism and demonstrate a developing insular focus. The involvement of the US in international Public Health efforts, such as that demonstrated in response to the Ebola outbreak in West Africa, can no longer be taken for granted.9–10 The current rule of Government by executive order heavily influenced by nationalist and populist politics also has significant implications for international organisations. For example, despite the important role of the United Nations (UN) in responding to the recent Ebola outbreak,11 the UN has already been targeted for criticism by both Trump12 and his recently appointed UN envoy.13

Trump’s impact on global public health can already also be seen across a range of areas, including the removal of funding from non-governmental organisations (NGOs) that provide information on abortion.14 Other impacts include a growing global insecurity,15 the erosion of basic human rights,16 and in examining the longer term, an increasing emphasis on fossil fuels.17

On a practical note, it must also be acknowledged that the focus of the US and many of its citizens, including those that might routinely support (financially or otherwise) international efforts in the field of health promotion, may be firmly focused internally over the next four or eight years. Many US citizens may simply have little time for international issues given their immediate focus on significant internal domestic changes. The Presidential election result came after both a bitter and divisive campaign,18 followed by a contested election result.19–20

To date the Trump presidency has been marked by controversy and clear demonstrations of populist engagement with racist sentiment. From examples in policies and commentaries so far we can expect a continuing decline in US support for international organisations such as the UN, as well as a growing isolationism. Knee-jerk policies using executive orders, with or without the support of Congress, will undoubtedly continue. US national and international health policies will increasingly be driven by right-wing capitalist and Christian principles. We can anticipate short-term and ongoing global inter-state instability, as well as longer-term implications for global warming based on a renewed emphasis on fossil fuels.

Summary

Abstract

Aim

Method

Results

Conclusion

Author Information

Frank Houghton, Chair, Public Health & Administration, Eastern Washington University, US.

Acknowledgements

Correspondence

Dr Frank Houghton, Chair, Public Health & Administration, Eastern Washington University, 668 N. Riverpoint Blvd, Spokane, Washington State, US.

Correspondence Email

fhoughton@ewu.edu

Competing Interests

Nil.

  1. From the song Mother written by Roger Waters on the Pink Floyd album The Wall released in 1979.
  2. Humer C. (2016) Trump promised to repeal Obamacare. Now what? Reuters. Accessed on February 1st 2014 at http://www.google.com/amp/mobile.reuters.com/article/amp/idUSKBN135171?client=safari
  3. Eilperin J (2017) Trump freezes hiring of many federal workers. The Washington Post. Accessed on 1st February 2017 at http://www.google.com/amp/s/www.washingtonpost.com/amphtml/powerpost/trump-freezes-hiring-of-federal-workers/2017/01/23/f14d8180-e190-11e6-ba11-63c4b4fb5a63_story.html?client=safari
  4. Frieden TR, Damen IK. Ebola in West Africa—CDC’s Role in Epidemic Detection, Control, and Prevention. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015, 22(11). Accessed on 1st February 2017 at http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/21/11/15-0949_article
  5. Rothwell J, Krol C. Everything you need to know about Donald Trump’s ‘Muslim ban’. The Telegraph. Accessed on 1st February 2017 at http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/01/29/everything-need-know-donald-trumps-muslim-ban/
  6. Yuhas A, Sidahmed M. Is this a Muslim ban? Trump’s executive order explained. The Guardian. Accessed on 1st February 2017 at http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2017/jan/28/trump-immigration-ban-syria-muslims-reaction-lawsuits
  7. Shear MD, Landler M, Apuzzo M, Lichtblau E. Trump Fires Acting Attorney General Who Defied Him. New York Times. Accessed on 1st February 2017 at http://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/30/us/politics/trump-immigration-ban-memo.html?_r=0
  8. Glenza J. US is paying for border wall because Mexico will pay ‘later’, Trump says. The Guardian. Accessed on 1st February 2017 at http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2017/jan/06/donald-trump-mexico-border-wall-congress-america-pay
  9. U.S. Department of Defense. DOD Helps Fight Ebola in Liberia and West Africa. Accessed on 3rd February 2017 at http://archive.defense.gov/home/features/2014/1014_ebola/
  10. The White House Office of the Press Secretary. Fact Sheet: U.S. Response to the Ebola Epidemic in West Africa. Accessed on 3rd February 2017 at http://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/2014/09/16/fact-sheet-us-response-ebola-epidemic-west-africa
  11. United Nations. Global Ebola Response. Accessed on 3rd February 2017 at http://ebolaresponse.un.org
  12. Wagner J. Trump re-ups criticism of United Nations, saying it’s causing problems, not solving them. The Washington Post. December 28th 2016. Accessed on 3rd February at http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/post-politics/wp/2016/12/28/trump-re-ups-criticism-of-united-nations-saying-its-causing-problems-not-solving-them/?utm_term=.05037331567b
  13. Nichols M. New U.S. U.N. envoy warns allies: back us or we’ll take names. Reuters. Friday 27th January 2017. Accessed on 3rd February 2017 at http://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-un-idUSKBN15B1NG
  14. Redden M. ‘Global gag rule’ reinstated by Trump, curbing NGO abortion services abroad. The Guardian, 23rd January 2017. Accessed on http://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/jan/23/trump-abortion-gag-rule-international-ngo-funding
  15. McCurry J. North Korea faces ‘overwhelming’ US response if it uses nuclear arms – Mattis. The Guardian. Friday February 3rd 2017. Accessed on February 3rd at http://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/feb/03/n-korea-faces-overwhelming-us-response-if-it-uses-nuclear-arms-mattis
  16. Johnson J. Trump says ‘torture works,’ backs waterboarding and ‘much worse’. The Washington Post. February 17th 2016. Accessed on Friday 3rd February 2017 at http://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/trump-says-torture-works-backs-waterboarding-and-much-worse/2016/02/17/4c9277be-d59c-11e5-b195-2e29a4e13425_story.html?tid=a_inl&utm_term=.2f848e066e24
  17. Baker P, Davenport C. Trump Revives Keystone Pipeline Rejected by Obama. The New York Times. January 24th 2017. Accessed on 3rd February 2017 at http://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/24/us/politics/keystone-dakota-pipeline-trump.html?_r=0
  18. Alexander H, Sherlock R. US election 2016: Welcome to America’s unpopularity contest. The Telegraph. 17th Septemer 2016. Accessed on 3rd February 2017 at http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/09/17/us-election-2016-welcome-to-americas-unpopularity-contest/
  19. Bump P. Hillary Clinton wins the popular vote but loses the election, for the second time. The Washington Post. Accessed on 3rd February 2017 at http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2016/11/09/for-the-second-time-hillary-clinton-wins-more-votes-but-loses-an-election/?utm_term=.5d561f1aea60
  20. The Independent. US election recount: Jill Stein files for vote audit in swing state of Michigan. Wednesday 30th November 2016. Accessed on 3rd February 2017 at http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2016/11/09/for-the-second-time-hillary-clinton-wins-more-votes-but-loses-an-election/?utm_term=.5d561f1aea60

For the PDF of this article,
contact nzmj@nzma.org.nz

View Article PDF

Mother should I build the wall?

Mother should I run for president?

Mother should I trust the government?1

Recently elected president of the US, Donald Trump, campaigned on a platform promising radical change within the first 100 days of his presidency. Approximately two weeks into this period it may be instructive to review changes to date and consider their implications for the future, with a particular focus on international health.

Examining domestic health issues within the US first, the new regime’s attacks on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (aka ‘Obamacare’, or the ‘ACA’), which extended care to tens of millions of uninsured Americans, are well known. Promises to scrap Obamacare were a central tenet of the Republican agenda since its controversial introduction, as well as being an important element of Trump’s campaign.2 The new Presidential hiring freeze on federal jobs is already having an impact on hiring, adversely impacting agencies such as the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC).3 This type of restriction will in time no doubt have implications for such agencies to effectively commit to international public health operations such as the recent Ebola outbreak in West Africa.4

However, this potential distal impact is minimal compared to recent developments in the US, which seem certain to indicate a radical change in perspectives and priorities. The most important of these cultural changes is undoubtedly crystallised in the recent ‘Muslim Ban’ instigated in the US.5 This executive order, which was signed on January 27th, imposed an immediate ban for 90 days on travelers from Syria, Iran, Sudan, Libya, Somalia, Yemen and Iraq even if they held a valid residence visa, as well as suspending the entire US refugee admissions system for 120 days.6

This executive order, which is just one of many, clearly and definitively demonstrates the insecure and defensive xenophobic attitudes of Trump and the new regime. This order was hastily constructed and implemented, and quickly resulted in the firing of the US Attorney General, who questioned its legality,7 as well as leaving customs officials unsure as to the status of dual nationals and those with permanent residence cards.6 The new President campaigned on an extraordinary combination of uncloaked racism and insular protectionism, which has been demonstrated most strongly in his call, which became a trademark chant at his rallies, to ‘build the wall’ between the US and Mexico.8

We can therefore anticipate a continuation into the future of US policy knee-jerk reactions that are steeped in both racism and demonstrate a developing insular focus. The involvement of the US in international Public Health efforts, such as that demonstrated in response to the Ebola outbreak in West Africa, can no longer be taken for granted.9–10 The current rule of Government by executive order heavily influenced by nationalist and populist politics also has significant implications for international organisations. For example, despite the important role of the United Nations (UN) in responding to the recent Ebola outbreak,11 the UN has already been targeted for criticism by both Trump12 and his recently appointed UN envoy.13

Trump’s impact on global public health can already also be seen across a range of areas, including the removal of funding from non-governmental organisations (NGOs) that provide information on abortion.14 Other impacts include a growing global insecurity,15 the erosion of basic human rights,16 and in examining the longer term, an increasing emphasis on fossil fuels.17

On a practical note, it must also be acknowledged that the focus of the US and many of its citizens, including those that might routinely support (financially or otherwise) international efforts in the field of health promotion, may be firmly focused internally over the next four or eight years. Many US citizens may simply have little time for international issues given their immediate focus on significant internal domestic changes. The Presidential election result came after both a bitter and divisive campaign,18 followed by a contested election result.19–20

To date the Trump presidency has been marked by controversy and clear demonstrations of populist engagement with racist sentiment. From examples in policies and commentaries so far we can expect a continuing decline in US support for international organisations such as the UN, as well as a growing isolationism. Knee-jerk policies using executive orders, with or without the support of Congress, will undoubtedly continue. US national and international health policies will increasingly be driven by right-wing capitalist and Christian principles. We can anticipate short-term and ongoing global inter-state instability, as well as longer-term implications for global warming based on a renewed emphasis on fossil fuels.

Summary

Abstract

Aim

Method

Results

Conclusion

Author Information

Frank Houghton, Chair, Public Health & Administration, Eastern Washington University, US.

Acknowledgements

Correspondence

Dr Frank Houghton, Chair, Public Health & Administration, Eastern Washington University, 668 N. Riverpoint Blvd, Spokane, Washington State, US.

Correspondence Email

fhoughton@ewu.edu

Competing Interests

Nil.

  1. From the song Mother written by Roger Waters on the Pink Floyd album The Wall released in 1979.
  2. Humer C. (2016) Trump promised to repeal Obamacare. Now what? Reuters. Accessed on February 1st 2014 at http://www.google.com/amp/mobile.reuters.com/article/amp/idUSKBN135171?client=safari
  3. Eilperin J (2017) Trump freezes hiring of many federal workers. The Washington Post. Accessed on 1st February 2017 at http://www.google.com/amp/s/www.washingtonpost.com/amphtml/powerpost/trump-freezes-hiring-of-federal-workers/2017/01/23/f14d8180-e190-11e6-ba11-63c4b4fb5a63_story.html?client=safari
  4. Frieden TR, Damen IK. Ebola in West Africa—CDC’s Role in Epidemic Detection, Control, and Prevention. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015, 22(11). Accessed on 1st February 2017 at http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/21/11/15-0949_article
  5. Rothwell J, Krol C. Everything you need to know about Donald Trump’s ‘Muslim ban’. The Telegraph. Accessed on 1st February 2017 at http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/01/29/everything-need-know-donald-trumps-muslim-ban/
  6. Yuhas A, Sidahmed M. Is this a Muslim ban? Trump’s executive order explained. The Guardian. Accessed on 1st February 2017 at http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2017/jan/28/trump-immigration-ban-syria-muslims-reaction-lawsuits
  7. Shear MD, Landler M, Apuzzo M, Lichtblau E. Trump Fires Acting Attorney General Who Defied Him. New York Times. Accessed on 1st February 2017 at http://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/30/us/politics/trump-immigration-ban-memo.html?_r=0
  8. Glenza J. US is paying for border wall because Mexico will pay ‘later’, Trump says. The Guardian. Accessed on 1st February 2017 at http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2017/jan/06/donald-trump-mexico-border-wall-congress-america-pay
  9. U.S. Department of Defense. DOD Helps Fight Ebola in Liberia and West Africa. Accessed on 3rd February 2017 at http://archive.defense.gov/home/features/2014/1014_ebola/
  10. The White House Office of the Press Secretary. Fact Sheet: U.S. Response to the Ebola Epidemic in West Africa. Accessed on 3rd February 2017 at http://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/2014/09/16/fact-sheet-us-response-ebola-epidemic-west-africa
  11. United Nations. Global Ebola Response. Accessed on 3rd February 2017 at http://ebolaresponse.un.org
  12. Wagner J. Trump re-ups criticism of United Nations, saying it’s causing problems, not solving them. The Washington Post. December 28th 2016. Accessed on 3rd February at http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/post-politics/wp/2016/12/28/trump-re-ups-criticism-of-united-nations-saying-its-causing-problems-not-solving-them/?utm_term=.05037331567b
  13. Nichols M. New U.S. U.N. envoy warns allies: back us or we’ll take names. Reuters. Friday 27th January 2017. Accessed on 3rd February 2017 at http://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-un-idUSKBN15B1NG
  14. Redden M. ‘Global gag rule’ reinstated by Trump, curbing NGO abortion services abroad. The Guardian, 23rd January 2017. Accessed on http://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/jan/23/trump-abortion-gag-rule-international-ngo-funding
  15. McCurry J. North Korea faces ‘overwhelming’ US response if it uses nuclear arms – Mattis. The Guardian. Friday February 3rd 2017. Accessed on February 3rd at http://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/feb/03/n-korea-faces-overwhelming-us-response-if-it-uses-nuclear-arms-mattis
  16. Johnson J. Trump says ‘torture works,’ backs waterboarding and ‘much worse’. The Washington Post. February 17th 2016. Accessed on Friday 3rd February 2017 at http://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/trump-says-torture-works-backs-waterboarding-and-much-worse/2016/02/17/4c9277be-d59c-11e5-b195-2e29a4e13425_story.html?tid=a_inl&utm_term=.2f848e066e24
  17. Baker P, Davenport C. Trump Revives Keystone Pipeline Rejected by Obama. The New York Times. January 24th 2017. Accessed on 3rd February 2017 at http://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/24/us/politics/keystone-dakota-pipeline-trump.html?_r=0
  18. Alexander H, Sherlock R. US election 2016: Welcome to America’s unpopularity contest. The Telegraph. 17th Septemer 2016. Accessed on 3rd February 2017 at http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/09/17/us-election-2016-welcome-to-americas-unpopularity-contest/
  19. Bump P. Hillary Clinton wins the popular vote but loses the election, for the second time. The Washington Post. Accessed on 3rd February 2017 at http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2016/11/09/for-the-second-time-hillary-clinton-wins-more-votes-but-loses-an-election/?utm_term=.5d561f1aea60
  20. The Independent. US election recount: Jill Stein files for vote audit in swing state of Michigan. Wednesday 30th November 2016. Accessed on 3rd February 2017 at http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2016/11/09/for-the-second-time-hillary-clinton-wins-more-votes-but-loses-an-election/?utm_term=.5d561f1aea60

Contact diana@nzma.org.nz
for the PDF of this article

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