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Increased incidence of hypospadias and cryptorchidism in the sons of dibutylphthalate-exposed NZ war veterans MB Carran & IC Shaw. Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch. Dibutylphthalate (DBP) is an endocrine disrupting compound (EDC). EDCs have been implicated in human exposure effects including cryptorchidism, hypospadias and precocious puberty in girls1; however there is no definitive cause/effect evidence. Members of the NZ Army stationed in Malaysia in the 1950's and 60's used DBP as an acaricide to prevent bush typhus which is transmitted by several ticks, includingTronbicula akamushi. DBP was painted onto the seams of the soldiers clothing before military operations and inevitably contaminated their skin from where it is known to be well absorbed. DBP-exposed NZ Malaysian veterans are therefore an interesting exposure cohort in which to study EDC effects. A questionnaire survey of NZ Malayan Veterans' Association members was conducted which sought to determine the frequencies of selected EDC exposure-associated disorders including cryptorchidism and hypospadias in the veterans, their children and grandchildren. The data were compared to the frequencies of the same disorders in the NZ population as a whole. Eighty-six questionnaires were returned, of these 73 of the respondents were exposed repeatedly to DBT. The DBT-exposed veterans had a total of 77 male children. The incidence of hypospadias, and cryptorchidism in the male offspring cohort were 1.3% (i.e. 1 case) and 5.2% (i.e. 4 cases) respectively. The corresponding incidences in the NZ population are 0.28%2 and 3%3 therefore the incidence of EDC-associated disorders is greater in the male children of exposed veterans. This is the first evidence of a causal link between exposure of human males to an EDC and biological effects.

Summary

Abstract

Aim

Method

Results

Conclusion

Author Information

Acknowledgements

Correspondence

Correspondence Email

Competing Interests

- Schadich, E. 2009. Skin peptide activities against opportunistic bacterial pathogens of the African Clawed Frogs (Xenopus laevis) and three Litoria frogs. Journal of Herpetology v43, 173-183.-- Schadich, E. et al., 2010. Effect of the pesticide carbaryl on the production of the skin antimicrobial peptides of Litoria raniformis frogs. Australasian Journal of Ecotoxicology. (In Press).-- Schadich, E and Cole, A.L.J. 2009. Inhibition of frog antimicrobial peptides by extracellular proteases of the bacterial pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila. Letters in Applied Microbiology v49, 384-387.-

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Increased incidence of hypospadias and cryptorchidism in the sons of dibutylphthalate-exposed NZ war veterans MB Carran & IC Shaw. Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch. Dibutylphthalate (DBP) is an endocrine disrupting compound (EDC). EDCs have been implicated in human exposure effects including cryptorchidism, hypospadias and precocious puberty in girls1; however there is no definitive cause/effect evidence. Members of the NZ Army stationed in Malaysia in the 1950's and 60's used DBP as an acaricide to prevent bush typhus which is transmitted by several ticks, includingTronbicula akamushi. DBP was painted onto the seams of the soldiers clothing before military operations and inevitably contaminated their skin from where it is known to be well absorbed. DBP-exposed NZ Malaysian veterans are therefore an interesting exposure cohort in which to study EDC effects. A questionnaire survey of NZ Malayan Veterans' Association members was conducted which sought to determine the frequencies of selected EDC exposure-associated disorders including cryptorchidism and hypospadias in the veterans, their children and grandchildren. The data were compared to the frequencies of the same disorders in the NZ population as a whole. Eighty-six questionnaires were returned, of these 73 of the respondents were exposed repeatedly to DBT. The DBT-exposed veterans had a total of 77 male children. The incidence of hypospadias, and cryptorchidism in the male offspring cohort were 1.3% (i.e. 1 case) and 5.2% (i.e. 4 cases) respectively. The corresponding incidences in the NZ population are 0.28%2 and 3%3 therefore the incidence of EDC-associated disorders is greater in the male children of exposed veterans. This is the first evidence of a causal link between exposure of human males to an EDC and biological effects.

Summary

Abstract

Aim

Method

Results

Conclusion

Author Information

Acknowledgements

Correspondence

Correspondence Email

Competing Interests

- Schadich, E. 2009. Skin peptide activities against opportunistic bacterial pathogens of the African Clawed Frogs (Xenopus laevis) and three Litoria frogs. Journal of Herpetology v43, 173-183.-- Schadich, E. et al., 2010. Effect of the pesticide carbaryl on the production of the skin antimicrobial peptides of Litoria raniformis frogs. Australasian Journal of Ecotoxicology. (In Press).-- Schadich, E and Cole, A.L.J. 2009. Inhibition of frog antimicrobial peptides by extracellular proteases of the bacterial pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila. Letters in Applied Microbiology v49, 384-387.-

For the PDF of this article,
contact nzmj@nzma.org.nz

View Article PDF

Increased incidence of hypospadias and cryptorchidism in the sons of dibutylphthalate-exposed NZ war veterans MB Carran & IC Shaw. Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch. Dibutylphthalate (DBP) is an endocrine disrupting compound (EDC). EDCs have been implicated in human exposure effects including cryptorchidism, hypospadias and precocious puberty in girls1; however there is no definitive cause/effect evidence. Members of the NZ Army stationed in Malaysia in the 1950's and 60's used DBP as an acaricide to prevent bush typhus which is transmitted by several ticks, includingTronbicula akamushi. DBP was painted onto the seams of the soldiers clothing before military operations and inevitably contaminated their skin from where it is known to be well absorbed. DBP-exposed NZ Malaysian veterans are therefore an interesting exposure cohort in which to study EDC effects. A questionnaire survey of NZ Malayan Veterans' Association members was conducted which sought to determine the frequencies of selected EDC exposure-associated disorders including cryptorchidism and hypospadias in the veterans, their children and grandchildren. The data were compared to the frequencies of the same disorders in the NZ population as a whole. Eighty-six questionnaires were returned, of these 73 of the respondents were exposed repeatedly to DBT. The DBT-exposed veterans had a total of 77 male children. The incidence of hypospadias, and cryptorchidism in the male offspring cohort were 1.3% (i.e. 1 case) and 5.2% (i.e. 4 cases) respectively. The corresponding incidences in the NZ population are 0.28%2 and 3%3 therefore the incidence of EDC-associated disorders is greater in the male children of exposed veterans. This is the first evidence of a causal link between exposure of human males to an EDC and biological effects.

Summary

Abstract

Aim

Method

Results

Conclusion

Author Information

Acknowledgements

Correspondence

Correspondence Email

Competing Interests

- Schadich, E. 2009. Skin peptide activities against opportunistic bacterial pathogens of the African Clawed Frogs (Xenopus laevis) and three Litoria frogs. Journal of Herpetology v43, 173-183.-- Schadich, E. et al., 2010. Effect of the pesticide carbaryl on the production of the skin antimicrobial peptides of Litoria raniformis frogs. Australasian Journal of Ecotoxicology. (In Press).-- Schadich, E and Cole, A.L.J. 2009. Inhibition of frog antimicrobial peptides by extracellular proteases of the bacterial pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila. Letters in Applied Microbiology v49, 384-387.-

Contact diana@nzma.org.nz
for the PDF of this article

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