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Randomised trial of peanut consumption in infants at risk for peanut allergyThe prevalence of peanut allergy among children in western countries has doubled in the past 10 years, reaching rates of 1.4 to 3.0%, and peanut allergy is becoming apparent in Africa and Asia. As this allergy is the leading cause of anaphylaxis and death due to food allergy, it would be very useful to find means to mitigate the allergy. This trial was conceived to determine whether the early introduction of dietary peanut could serve as an effective primary and secondary strategy for the prevention of peanut allergy.640 infants with severe eczema, egg allergy, or both, were randomly assigned to consume or avoid peanuts until 60 months of age. The researchers report that the prevalence of peanut allergy at 60 months of age was 13.7% in the avoidance group and 1.9% in the consumption group (p < 0.001). Convincing.N Engl J Med 2015;372:803-13 Latanoprost for open-angle glaucomaTreatments for open-angle glaucoma aim to prevent vision loss through lowering of intraocular pressure. The topical application of a prostaglandin analogue is commonly the first choice drug. However, until now there have been no randomised placebo controlled trials to demonstrate the effectiveness of such treatments. This report concerns research aimed to assess the effect of the prostaglandin analogue latanoprost on the visual field preservation of patients with open-angle glaucoma in a comparatively short trial.Ten centres in the UK enrolled over 500 patients who were randomised to receive either latanoprost 0.005% (intervention group) or placebo (control group) eye drops. Drops were administered from identical bottles, once a day, to both eyes. The primary outcome was time to visual field deterioration within 24 months.At the 24 month assessment, the mean reduction in intraocular pressure was greater in the treatment arm of the study. Visual field preservation was found to be significantly longer in the latanoprost patients. Individuals with advanced open-angle glaucoma were excluded so the results of this trial only apply to patients with mild to moderate glaucoma.Lancet 2015; 385:1295-304 Pharmacological treatments for the prevention of acute exacerbations of chronic pulmonary diseaseThis review looks at the clinical trial evidence to support the efficacy of a variety of medications.Trial evidence does support the use of influenza vaccination and pneumococcal vaccination. It also supports treatment with long-acting antimuscarinic bronchodilators (LAMAs) and long-acting beta agonist bronchodilators (LABAs) and corticosteroid-LABA combinations. However, efficacy for inhaled corticosteroid with LABA and LAMA or LABA and LAMA combination has not been confirmed.Azithromycin has trial evidence backing but the use of pulsed moxifloxacin is not supported. Unsurprisingly, there is no trial evidence backing the use of simvastatin, N-acetyl cysteine or vitamin D.BMJ 2014; 349:g5237

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Randomised trial of peanut consumption in infants at risk for peanut allergyThe prevalence of peanut allergy among children in western countries has doubled in the past 10 years, reaching rates of 1.4 to 3.0%, and peanut allergy is becoming apparent in Africa and Asia. As this allergy is the leading cause of anaphylaxis and death due to food allergy, it would be very useful to find means to mitigate the allergy. This trial was conceived to determine whether the early introduction of dietary peanut could serve as an effective primary and secondary strategy for the prevention of peanut allergy.640 infants with severe eczema, egg allergy, or both, were randomly assigned to consume or avoid peanuts until 60 months of age. The researchers report that the prevalence of peanut allergy at 60 months of age was 13.7% in the avoidance group and 1.9% in the consumption group (p < 0.001). Convincing.N Engl J Med 2015;372:803-13 Latanoprost for open-angle glaucomaTreatments for open-angle glaucoma aim to prevent vision loss through lowering of intraocular pressure. The topical application of a prostaglandin analogue is commonly the first choice drug. However, until now there have been no randomised placebo controlled trials to demonstrate the effectiveness of such treatments. This report concerns research aimed to assess the effect of the prostaglandin analogue latanoprost on the visual field preservation of patients with open-angle glaucoma in a comparatively short trial.Ten centres in the UK enrolled over 500 patients who were randomised to receive either latanoprost 0.005% (intervention group) or placebo (control group) eye drops. Drops were administered from identical bottles, once a day, to both eyes. The primary outcome was time to visual field deterioration within 24 months.At the 24 month assessment, the mean reduction in intraocular pressure was greater in the treatment arm of the study. Visual field preservation was found to be significantly longer in the latanoprost patients. Individuals with advanced open-angle glaucoma were excluded so the results of this trial only apply to patients with mild to moderate glaucoma.Lancet 2015; 385:1295-304 Pharmacological treatments for the prevention of acute exacerbations of chronic pulmonary diseaseThis review looks at the clinical trial evidence to support the efficacy of a variety of medications.Trial evidence does support the use of influenza vaccination and pneumococcal vaccination. It also supports treatment with long-acting antimuscarinic bronchodilators (LAMAs) and long-acting beta agonist bronchodilators (LABAs) and corticosteroid-LABA combinations. However, efficacy for inhaled corticosteroid with LABA and LAMA or LABA and LAMA combination has not been confirmed.Azithromycin has trial evidence backing but the use of pulsed moxifloxacin is not supported. Unsurprisingly, there is no trial evidence backing the use of simvastatin, N-acetyl cysteine or vitamin D.BMJ 2014; 349:g5237

Summary

Abstract

Aim

Method

Results

Conclusion

Author Information

Acknowledgements

Correspondence

Correspondence Email

Competing Interests

For the PDF of this article,
contact nzmj@nzma.org.nz

View Article PDF

Randomised trial of peanut consumption in infants at risk for peanut allergyThe prevalence of peanut allergy among children in western countries has doubled in the past 10 years, reaching rates of 1.4 to 3.0%, and peanut allergy is becoming apparent in Africa and Asia. As this allergy is the leading cause of anaphylaxis and death due to food allergy, it would be very useful to find means to mitigate the allergy. This trial was conceived to determine whether the early introduction of dietary peanut could serve as an effective primary and secondary strategy for the prevention of peanut allergy.640 infants with severe eczema, egg allergy, or both, were randomly assigned to consume or avoid peanuts until 60 months of age. The researchers report that the prevalence of peanut allergy at 60 months of age was 13.7% in the avoidance group and 1.9% in the consumption group (p < 0.001). Convincing.N Engl J Med 2015;372:803-13 Latanoprost for open-angle glaucomaTreatments for open-angle glaucoma aim to prevent vision loss through lowering of intraocular pressure. The topical application of a prostaglandin analogue is commonly the first choice drug. However, until now there have been no randomised placebo controlled trials to demonstrate the effectiveness of such treatments. This report concerns research aimed to assess the effect of the prostaglandin analogue latanoprost on the visual field preservation of patients with open-angle glaucoma in a comparatively short trial.Ten centres in the UK enrolled over 500 patients who were randomised to receive either latanoprost 0.005% (intervention group) or placebo (control group) eye drops. Drops were administered from identical bottles, once a day, to both eyes. The primary outcome was time to visual field deterioration within 24 months.At the 24 month assessment, the mean reduction in intraocular pressure was greater in the treatment arm of the study. Visual field preservation was found to be significantly longer in the latanoprost patients. Individuals with advanced open-angle glaucoma were excluded so the results of this trial only apply to patients with mild to moderate glaucoma.Lancet 2015; 385:1295-304 Pharmacological treatments for the prevention of acute exacerbations of chronic pulmonary diseaseThis review looks at the clinical trial evidence to support the efficacy of a variety of medications.Trial evidence does support the use of influenza vaccination and pneumococcal vaccination. It also supports treatment with long-acting antimuscarinic bronchodilators (LAMAs) and long-acting beta agonist bronchodilators (LABAs) and corticosteroid-LABA combinations. However, efficacy for inhaled corticosteroid with LABA and LAMA or LABA and LAMA combination has not been confirmed.Azithromycin has trial evidence backing but the use of pulsed moxifloxacin is not supported. Unsurprisingly, there is no trial evidence backing the use of simvastatin, N-acetyl cysteine or vitamin D.BMJ 2014; 349:g5237

Summary

Abstract

Aim

Method

Results

Conclusion

Author Information

Acknowledgements

Correspondence

Correspondence Email

Competing Interests

Contact diana@nzma.org.nz
for the PDF of this article

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